Koop served as surgeon general from 1982 to 1989, under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.
He was outspoken on public health issues and did much to elevate the office of the surgeon general.
He died at his home in Hanover, New Hampshire, the college said in a news release.
“Dr. Koop did more than take care of his individual patients — he taught all of us about critical health issues that affect our larger society,” said Dartmouth President Carol L. Folt. “Through that knowledge, he empowered each of us to improve our own well-being and quality of life. Dr. Koop’s commitment to education allowed him to do something most physicians can only dream of: improving the health of millions of people worldwide.”
Koop, who was called “Chick” by his friends, was perhaps best known for his work around HIV/AIDS. He wrote a brochure about the disease that was sent to 107 million households in the United States in 1988. It was the largest public health mailing ever, according to a biography of Koop on a website of the surgeon general.
Prior to his appointment, Koop was surgeon-in-chief at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, where he was a pioneer in the field of pediatric surgery, the biography said.
He was born in Brooklyn, New York, and attended Dartmouth College, Weill Cornell Medical College and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Koop was the author of more than 200 articles and books. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1995 and was known for wearing bow ties, suspenders and a clipped beard.
Koop is survived by his wife, three children and eight grandchildren. His first wife died in 2007.
“Dr. Koop was not only a pioneering pediatric surgeon but also one of the most courageous and passionate public health advocates of the past century,” said Wiley W. Souba, dean of the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. “He did not back down from deeply rooted health challenges or powerful interests that stood in the way of needed change. Instead, he fought, he educated, and he transformed lives for the better.”